Pan-Africanism was a movement to connect the people is the diaspora to those that were still living in Africa. Its primary goal was to unify all peoples of African descent through shared experiences and the need for action.
There were many people who were influential in the pan-African movement. The following are some of the more influential persons. Dr Edward Blyden has been credited with the conceptual idea of Pan-Africanism, and was the first person to use the term “African personality”. Casely Hayford wrote the book Ethiopia Unbound: Studies in Race Emancipation. Sylvester Williams organized the first Pan-African congress in 1900. This took place in London and was followed by four more between 1919 and 1927. These conferences were organized by W. E. B. Dubois. The last one was held in New York in 1927. Marcus Garvey founded the Universal Improvement Association in 1914, and completely rejected the idea that white would come to be equal with blacks. Founded the “Back to Africa” movement in which he created the Black Star Line to move African that were living in the Diaspora back to Africa. George Padmore wrote the book Pan-Africanism or Communism and was the co-organizer of the Pan-African Congress in 1945. Lastly, Kwame Nkrumah must be noted as the most influential figure within the Pan-African movement. He was a great believer in the independence of African and the need for African to co-operate in order to rebuild Africa. He organized the very first conference of independent African states in 1958 and was the chief architect in the founding of the Organization of African Unity.
The Pan-African movement was in response to the Euro-centric way that the peoples of Africa had been treated in the late 19th and early 20th century. That being said there were also many anti-imperialist and critics that lived within Europe at the time as well as division within Africa. There was also a waning of power from Europe after the second world war and Europe was not able to continue to finance it operation outside if its own borders.
Some of the pros of Pan-Africanism is that is provided an new perspective regarding the struggle for independence that was being felt within Africa as well as other countries. It created within African, both living in Africa and in the diaspora, a pride to be black. It also emphasized the shared goals and hopes that nationalism would be a positive influence, sidestepping the negative features that can come from nationalistic tendencies of new and emerging independent countries.